Pelvic pain can occur in women and men. It may be related to referred muscle pain, nerve entrapment, menstrual cycles, endometriosis, previous surgeries or traumas, bladder dysfunction, gastrointestinal dysfunction, or may not yet have a known cause. Post-surgical pain can be caused by scarring, connective tissue restrictions, and tissue trauma. Although it is not yet fully understood what causes pain around a menstrual cycle, there are several pelvic structures which often contribute. Through myofascial release, visceral manipulation, and other manual techniques, many sources of pelvic pain may be improved with physical therapy.